These notes apply to 2.1 (Slink) and are intended as an Appendix to
Brief Beginner's Guide to Using Debian GNU/Linux (2.1 Slink) version
After the Debian install, all you need to do is change the /etc/lilo.conf to include the other OS:
(Note: This example assumes the root partition is hda2. You should run /sbin/lilo after altering the file to re-load lilo.)
Then, when the system next boots, press Alt for a boot prompt, then
enter either linux to boot Debian or win to boot the other
It is a good idea to frequently update the system using apt-get. This applies particuarly to security patches. To retrive and install the security patches add the following line to /etc/apt/sources.list then enter apt-get update followed by apt-get dist-upgrade.
deb ftp://security.debian.org/debian-security stable updates
General updates can be obtained by entering
deb ftp://ftp.debian.org/debian stable updates
In the event of xdm crashing (it has been known) and you find you cannot kill the X server with Control-Alt-Backspace, then find the xdm PID's using top and kill both of them.
When xdm starts, it forks and two xdm processess are run.
The file to edit is /etc/Muttrc
To save a copy of outgoing mail, unset (by removing the #)
and then change #set record= " " to
This creates an Outbox for users in ~/Mail
You will need to enter the source of the latest X .deb packages in the /etc/apt/sources.list file. For example, enter
which will open the file using the vi editor. [ Note that vi starts
in command mode - to enter text, press the i key. To delete text, press
the Esc key,
pressing the x key deletes what is under the cursor. To return to edit mode, press the i key. To quit and save, press :wq (that is, colon followed by wq). Another way is to use fte.
At the time of writing (November 1999) the latest Slink deb for X is version 3.3.4 and is available at:
This (with deb before the http) is what you should enter as the source in the /etc/apt/sources.list file.
Then connect to the Net, and enter
After the download is complete, the packages will be automatically unpacked and installed. You should then run
If you want to disable the speaker on your modem, you need to alter the modem initialization string. For wvdial this is in /etc/wvdial.conf and simply add M0 (that is, Mzero) to the Init 2 string after ATQ0 V1.
For the chatscript used when pon is entered, edit the /etc/chatscripts/provider file and add ATM0 followed by OK after ATZ OK so that it reads
" " ATZ
Here, M is the AT command for speaker; followed by 0 means off; by 1 speaker off until carrier detected; by 2 speaker always on; by 3 off while dialing and on until carrier detected.
You can also use the AT command L to adjust the volume; L0 is low; L1
not so low; L2 medium; L3 high volume.
To fine tune or adjust the X server defaults, use (or install the package if not installed) xvidtune which provides a config tool to change options. Enter xvidtune in an xterm.
To format a floppy in drive 0 - i.e. dev/fd0 - enter, in an xterm,
superformat /dev/fd0 hd
For details about this, enter
Note: The fdutils package is usually installed by default.
The easiest way to set file and directory permissions is to remember the following:
4 = read r
2 = write w
1 = execute x
Thus 7 (4+2+1) means rwx and 5 means r-x.
Hence 755 would mean rwx r-x r-x
To change permissions, enter:
chmod <permissions> <path>
chmod 755 /usr/bin/cal
would change the permissions of cal in /usr/bin/ to rwx
To make the system more secure, check the /etc/inetd.conf file and comment out those services not used or required (e.g. finger).
Two services which should usually be left enabled are
Also, edit /etc/hosts.deny and deny access to all:
Then place in /etc/hosts.allow those allowed.
To save using su every time a user connects to an ISP using pon, you can add the user to the dip group. Enter
gpasswd -a <username> dip
To remove a user from a group:
gpasswd -d <username>
It is sometimes useful to scroll up and down an xterm if the information fills more than the visible screen (for example, if you enter something like ps aux, most of which cannot be read).
Shift+PageUp (or Page Down)
If you have not got the Midnight Commander file manager in colour mode as default and want to use colour for a session, enter
If you want to make this the default for the current session:
alias mc="mc -c"
If you get an error message about not finding Proxy ARP and you do not have a network card installed, edit /etc/ppp/options and change the proxyarp line to:
Copyright 1999 by Muhammad Yusuf.
This work may be freely distributed and freely republished in any format without any prior notification being required, provided the above copyright and this free distribution notice are added either at the beginning or the end of the distributed/published document.
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